Summer 2014, Volume 2, Issue 2

Journal of Progressive Policy and Practice

Volume 2, Issue 2

Guest Editors: J. Luke Wood, Frank Harris III, and Soua Xiong


PREFATORY: Advancing the Success of Men of Color in the Community College: Special Issue on the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM)

The articles presented in this special issue feature data derived from the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM).  The CCSM is an institutional-level needs assessment tool employed by community colleges to identify factors that influence student success outcomes for their men. Articles featured herein explored topics and populations rarely investigated in the wider body of research on college men and community college students. As a result, this special issue represents an integral addition to the scholarly literature, helping to advance new knowledge on populations that community colleges have historically struggled to serve. 

J. Luke Wood, San Diego State University

Frank Harris III, San Diego State University

Soua Xiong, San Diego State University & Claremont Graduate University


Black Male Students in the Community College and Faculty Student Engagement: Differential Scores Across Levels of Faculty-Derived Campus Ethos

The purpose of this study sought to determine whether there were differences in students’ levels of engagement with faculty members based on different levels of faculty members’ welcomeness and imbuement of belonging.  Using CCSM data, this dataset was delimited to a sample of Black men who attended community college at a large urban district in the western United States. Data in this study were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Findings from this study demonstrate that faculty-student engagement is a function of campus ethos conditions fostered by faculty. When faculty members create conditions where students feel welcome to engage in the class, demonstrate an interest in interacting with students informally outside of class by being friendly, and create conditions where students feel like they belong, then students are more likely to be engage.

John D. Harrison, Louisiana Tech University

Angelica M. G. Palacios, San Diego State University


Do Community Colleges’ Military-Friendly Designations Make a Difference? A Propensity Score Adjustment Analysis

The term military-friendly is used increasingly to describe colleges that embrace practices that recognize the unique needs of student-veterans. Through the use of two-way analysis of variance (factorial ANOVA), this exploratory study examined if there were differences between students (non-veteran and veteran) and colleges’ designation (registered or not-registered as military-friendly) on students’ perceptions of validation, welcomeness, and belonging from faculty in the community college. Using data from the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM), this study found that students reported lower scores for faculty validation at military-friendly community colleges. Moreover, faculty belonging scores were significantly lower for student-veterans despite the colleges’ military-friendly designation. Findings suggest that more can be done by community college leaders to assist student-veterans in their academic success. As such, this exploratory study offers recommendations to achieve this objective.

Judie A. Heineman, San Diego State University


Black Male Community College Students and Faculty-Student Engagement: Differences in Faculty Validation and Time Status

The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not there were differences in faculty student engagement for Black male students experiencing validation by faculty, time status and the interaction of these factors.  Drawing upon data from the CCSM©, this study delimited to a select sub-sample of 289 urban Black men attending community colleges.  Data in this study were analyzed using two-way (3X2) factorial analysis of variance (Factorial ANOVA). Findings of this study indicated that full time Black male students were not more likely to engage with faculty than part time students. This study expands on the previous research because it looks at different types of faculty validation and how that can affect levels of faculty student engagement.

Kara Bauer, San Diego State University


Perceptions of Degree Utility Among Men of Color: Comparing Interactions Across Validation, Stressful Life Events, and Race

The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in degree utility based on men’s race, experiences with faculty validation, and stressful life events. Using CCSM data, the sample for this study was delimited to a select subset of urban college men (N=1,415).  A three-way (6x4x3) factorial analysis of variance (Factorial ANOVA) was employed to analyze the dataset. The findings of this study suggest that considerable amounts of faculty validation, even when given to men that are experiencing high stress levels, are associated with greater levels of degree utility.  This data posits that campus climate has an effect on non-cognitive variables, such as degree utility.  The more men are validated by faculty, specifically when experiencing high stress levels, the more likely a higher value of degree utility is reported.

Angelica M. G. Palacios, San Diego State University


Men of Color in STEM in the Community College from a Non-Cognitive Perspective: An Analysis of the Effect of Race and Generational Status

This exploratory study sought to determine whether differences exist in students’ non‑cognitive make‑up based on race/ethnicity and generational status, while controlling for the effects of GPA. Data utilized in this study were derived from the CCSM.  This dataset was delimited to a sample of men in STEM majors from 17 select two-year, degree-granting institutions (N=558). Analyses were conducted using a one-way (1×3) ANOVA and a two-way (2×3) factorial ANCOVA. Findings from this study indicated significant differences based on race for three variables. The results of this study indicated that Latino students had significantly higher levels of locus of control than White students; Black students had significantly higher levels of action control than White and Latino students; and Black students had significantly higher levels of intrinsic interest than White students.

Rafael D. Alvarez, San Diego State University


Life Stressors and Non-Cognitive Outcomes in Community Colleges for Mexican/Mexican American Men

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of life stressors on non-cognitive outcomes (e.g., locus of control, self-efficacy, degree utility) for community college Mexican/Mexican American men after controlling for age, income, dependents, high school grade point average, and time status. Bean and Metzner’s (1985) Model of Nontraditional Student Attrition served as the guiding theory in this study. Using the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) data instrument, findings indicated that life stressors had a significant effect on locus of control, and degree utility for community college Mexican/Mexican American men. Implications for student affairs practice are extended.

Art Guaracha Jr., San Diego State University


*Special thank you to James Bolden, Vannessa Falcon, and Tom de la Garza for their support in the development of this special issue.